Glossary

FAQ: an A to Z of useful terminology

Abrasion resistance

The ability of a product to resist the effects of friction.

Acrylic

An artificial resin used for high-performance, water-soluble coatings. A coating in which the adhesive agent contains acrylic artificial resins.

Active corrosion prevention

A direct intervention into the electro-chemical reaction chain: usually based on cathodic polarisation using sacrificial anodes or parasitic current.

Additive

A substance added to another substance to improve its properties.

Adhesion

The ability of a product to stick to a surface.

Adhesive separation pattern

The complete debonding of the contact surface between the product and the substrate (e.g. steel pipe) under application of force, without product residues being left on the substrate surface.

Adhesive strength

A measure of the strength of the connection between the base and the encasement, measured by the force required to separate the two.

Aerosol

A product that uses pressurised gas to spray a coating out of a container.

Ageing

Changes to the physical and chemical properties of a substance after long-term storage or during use. The effects of oxygen, moisture, light, ultraviolet rays etc. can accelerate the ageing process.

Airless spraying

A spraying process that relies solely on hydraulic pressure to atomise a product, without using compressed air.

Application

A technical term for adding coatings.

Asphalt

A mixture of mineral substances (gravel, grit, sand, rock dust) and bitumen as a binding agent.

Asphalt concrete

A composite product used in asphalt road construction in which the rock particle mixtures used in concrete are bound together using asphalt.

Back filling material

A separate material, e.g. a round cord, intended to limit the fill quantity of sealant in a joint and prevent three-edge adhesion.

Ball valve

A shut-off valve (fitting) that uses a perforated ball to block off the flow. The ball valve is characterised by its ability to completely block off a flow by pivoting exactly 90°, unlike other forms of valves.

Bitumen

A substance used to manufacture bitumen joint tapes, bitumen tapes and compounds etc.; occurs naturally and can be distilled from crude oil.

Bitumen tape

A bitumen-based coating tape with carrier layers.

Bitumen joint tape

A bitumen tape, either self-adhesive or surface-fusing, to seal joints and seams in asphalt road construction.

Blasting abrasive

A material used during sandblasting. May include gravel, grit, steel shot, wire off-cuts, glass beads, blast furnace slag, cherry stones or dry ice pellets.

Bunker silo

Usually comprises a base, which is secured using concrete or asphalt and can be driven on by transport vehicles, and concrete side walls. Used to store bulk goods, e.g. in agriculture to produce silage from fodder plants.

Butyl, butyl rubber tape

Elastomer comprised of isobutylene and isoprene.

Butyl rubber tape, PE/butyl tape

Butyl rubber-based corrosion prevention tape with very high plasticity and a thin polyethylene carrier film. 

Cathodic disbondment

The loss of adhesive strength between the coating and the substrate (e.g. steel surface) due to electro-chemical processes.

Cathodic disbondment resistance

The degree of resistance of the encasement to cathodic disbondment.

Cathodic corrosion prevention

A process that provides protection against electro-chemical corrosion.

CE marking

The CE marking confirms that construction products are fit for use. The CE marking is proof of conformity with the European Construction Products Regulation. Certain products must have a CE marking to be sold within the European Economic Area (EEA) and Turkey. By affixing a CE marking, the manufacturer declares, on its own responsibility, that the product meets the requirements of the Construction Products Regulation and harmonised European product standards.

Chamfer (in sealing technology contexts)

A chamfer is a component edge angled towards the joint channel. Chamfers are primarily used with prefabricated concrete parts or traffic-bearing ground joints.

Chamfer (in corrosion prevention contexts)

A chamfer is an angled edge. Chamfers are primarily used with factory coatings and should be angled as acutely as possible to the longitudinal axis of the component.

Coating

An adhesive layer comprised of a formless substance applied to a substrate (e.g. steel surface), e.g. by painting, galvanisation, powder-coating or hot-dip galvanisation.

Co-extrusion

An innovative production process: The fusing of different materials before they exit the extruder profile nozzle.

Cohesion

The ability of a single substance to adhere to itself. Also referred to as internal adhesion.

Cohesive separation pattern

Debonding within the product applied to the substrate (e.g. steel pipe). The product residues remain on the substrate surface after force is applied.

Cold application

The product can be processed without additional aids or a flame (heating).

Cold pouring

A pouring process to seal asphalt joints without additionally warming the product (two-component products).

Cold winding process

Winding tape around substrates (e.g. steel pipes) without the use of additional heat.

Compression seal

An elastic sealing profile for concrete joints that can be used in joints, regardless of the weather conditions. The seal is created by the rubber-elastic restoring forces of the deformed profile.

Concrete

A mixture of gravel, sand and cement. Adding water to this mixture triggers a chemical reaction in the cement, causing it to bind the other materials.

Copolymer

Polymers that feature two or more monomers of different types in a single polymer chain.

Corrosion

Corrosion is a reaction between a material and its environment (e.g. oxygen, water), which results in changes in the material joint and can weaken the component.

Creep

Unintentional loss of material that flows away due to external influences.

Defect area

Damage to or defects in the original coating or encasement, impairing the ability of the system to meet the original requirements or possess the required properties.

Density

Mass divided by volume (g/m³)

DENSO

Derived from the Latin for 'to seal'. Registered in 1927 by Denso-Holding GmbH & Co., Germany.

DEKOTEC

Abbreviation of the German Term Denso Corrosion prevention Technology

Design temperature

The maximum temperature to which a product can be subjected in the short term without causing damage or changes to the material.

Dew point temperature

The temperature at which air is saturated with water vapour. The lower the temperature, the less water vapour the air is able to absorb. If the temperature drops to the dew point, for example on substrate surfaces, water vapour will turn to condensation.

Dielectric strength

The material resistance level up to which no voltage can penetrate through the material to the substrate (e.g. steel surface).

Diffusion resistant

Impermeable, e.g. to gas or oxygen.

DIN

A globally recognised German professional body with headquarters in Berlin. DIN issues DIN standards and, in legislation and legal disputes, ensures that these are taken into account as descriptions of technical facts. The standards are checked and revised every five years.

DIN DVGW registration number

The registration number of corrosion prevention materials tested and approved by the DVGW (German Technical and Scientific Association for Gas and Water).

Dripping point

Describes the temperature at which components of, for example, a petrolatum tape will begin to drip.

Drying time

The time required after a prime coat has been applied for the majority of the volatile components of the primer to evaporate.

Duplex system

A corrosion prevention system that uses galvanisation in combination with one or more subsequent coatings.

Duroplast

A plastic that, once hardened, can no longer be permanently reformed.

Edge

The part of a joint or a seam at which two components or materials come into force-fitted contact.

Elastomer

A stable but elastic and formable plastic. Elastomers can be elastically formed when stretched or subjected to pressure, but then return to their original unformed shape.

Elasticity module N/mm2

The "formability" of a material subjected to stretching or to pressure. Defined by the relationship between the forces exerted on the material and the resulting stretch.

Electrical insulation resistance

Indicates the degree of electrical insulation and therefore the quality of the encasement materials.

Elongation at break

Represents the ability of a material to withstand form changes (stretching) without tearing.

Encasement

The application of an adhesive layer, for example comprising tape or sleeves, to a substrate surface. Products that have been applied using a winding or shrinking process.

Epoxy/epoxy resin coating

Epoxy resin coatings are extremely hard, permanent and highly resistant to chemicals, wear and moisture.

Expansion joint

Refers to a planned clearance space between two construction components to allow for various movements.

Extruder

Extruders are conveying devices that evenly press solid or thick viscous materials at high pressures and high temperatures through an opening that is designed to shape them.

Extrusion

Extrusion is a conveying process that involves evenly pressing solid or thick viscous materials at high pressures and high temperatures through an opening that is designed to shape them. 

Factory (mill) coating            

An encasement applied in a fixed plant, usually consisting of thermoplastics or duroplastics.

Fibreglass

A carrier layer with very high maximum tensile force and low stretch.

Filler

A substance used to achieve the required properties.

Fitting

A collective term for ball valves, shut-off discs, valves, pig traps etc., such as those fitted in gas transport stations.

Flange

A detachable connection between pipes.

Four-layer

Spiral wrapping a tape with an overlap of 75% results in four tape layers.

Gate valve group

Gate valve groups divide gas pipelines into sections that are controlled by the valves. In the event of faults, or if work is being carried out on the system, the valves are closed. This means that only one section of the gas supply is interrupted, rather than the whole network.

Glass mat

A carrier layer with low maximum tensile force and low stretch.

Grease tape

A colloquial reference to petrolatum tape (also referred to as Vaseline tape).

GW 15

Training for corrosion prevention technicians, including a theoretical and a practical test. 

Hardener

A setting agent, e.g. for epoxy resin and FRP.

Horizontal directional drilling

A method for trenchless pipeline installation. The horizontal directional drilling system drills an underground channel and features high-pressure flushing nozzles on the drilling head. As the drilling head is withdrawn, the pipeline is inserted into the channel. The bentonite slurry between the pipeline and the drilling channel wall is used to seal the area to prevent soil sagging. See also HDD.

Hot pouring

Sealing a joint by applying a melted pouring compound.

Hot processing

The product is processed using a flame (heated).

Hot spraying/hot spraying process

The hot spraying process enables low-solvent, high-solid and high-viscosity products to be processed with ease. The product is heated and applied to the work piece with or without the use of air.

Hot melt

An adhesive that is applied hot.

HR class

A classification system by GRTgaz (France) designed to rate corrosion prevention systems based on the loads that occur.

Impact resistance

The degree to which the encasement can withstand impact without failing.

Indentation resistance

The degree to which the encasement can withstand certain pressures without failing.

Inner tape

Corrosion prevention tape used beneath a second tape (another corrosion prevention tape, e.g. tensioning strap, or mechanical protection tape).

Joint

The connection between an operational pipeline and a transport pipeline (usually new), a new gas control station or an industrial supply pipeline. In road construction, also used to refer to the joint that connects the various asphalt layers, e.g. the point at which melted asphalt meets rolled asphalt.

Joint

In construction, a joint is an intended or tolerance-based opening or gap between two components or materials with different properties.

Joint seam adhesive

A compound used to join seams and connections permanently during construction work with asphalt mix and poured asphalt. 

Lap shear strength

The maximum force (based on the surface) required to break the connection between the encasement and the surface. The tensile force must be applied parallel to the connection surface.

Light resistance

The ability of coatings to withstand the effects of light rays. Exposure to light can cause discolouration and yellowing.

Low temperature flexibility

A test to determine flexibility at low temperatures.

Machined edge

An edge created on the remaining layer, e.g. during road construction.

Marshall values

The Marshall test specimen is used to determine the bulk density, Marshall stability and Marshall flow value based on the Marshall method. These values are used to determine the quality of the asphalt mixed compound.

Meltomat

A special melter designed to process pouring materials rapidly and cost-effectively.

Meltstick

A hot-melt adhesive stick

Monomers

Materials with a low molecular weight that can form polymers with molecules of the same or different types.

Mortar

A construction material containing a binding agent (quicklime or cement), grit with a maximum grain size of 4 mm, any additional ingredients and water; hardens the binding agent through a chemical reaction.

Multitape

A corrosion prevention system comprising three or more tapes. The inner tape prevents corrosion; the middle tape(s) act as tensioning straps and the outer tape provides mechanical protection. 

N1

Type reference for hot pouring compounds in accordance with the German / European standard DIN EN 14188-1 for joint sealing in road surfaces that are made from concrete and asphalt with little or no traffic load.

N2

Type reference for hot pouring compounds in accordance with the German / European standard DIN EN 14188-1 for joint sealing in traffic-bearing road surfaces made from concrete, concrete sheets and asphalt.

Offshore

In the sea

Onshore

On the land

Operating temperature

Refers to the general steady temperature of a medium or an operating plant (also referred to as permanent operating temperature).

Outer tape

Protective tape that provides additional mechanical protection for the inner tape (corrosion prevention tape). 

Passive corrosion prevention

Prevention of cathodic partial reaction (oxygen reduction) through the diffusion-resistant separation of iron from corrosive media (oxygen, water).

PE/butyl tape

Butyl rubber-based corrosion prevention tape with high plasticity thanks to its thin polyethylene carrier film.

Permanent operating temperature

The maximum temperature to which a product can be permanently subjected, without causing damage or changes to the material.

Permanent plastic

The long-term ability of substances, even after processing, to change in form under the application of force, and to maintain this change.

Petrolatum mastics/tapes

Refers to corrosion prevention mastics and petrolatum/Vaseline-based tapes.

Peel strength/peel resistance

The force required (based on the width, vertical to the encased surface), to peel off a strip of the encasement.

Pipeline station construction

A collective term for all work relating to the construction or expansion of gas control, pressure control or distribution stations for gas transport lines.

Pipe-plough method

A soil displacement method for trenchless installation of pipelines. A plough is used to plough the soil underground and the pipeline is immediately installed; the channel created is immediately filled back in.

Pipe ramming method

A method for trenchless pipeline installation that dynamically rams the pipeline into the ground. The displaced soil must then be manually removed from the pipeline.

Plastic

The ability of substances to retain their new form following the application of force.

Polyethylene

A thermoplastic. The most commonly used "standard" plastic worldwide.

Polymer

A chemical substance that is comprised of macromolecules. The adjective "polymer" means "made up of many of the same parts".

Polypropylene

A thermoplastic. Similar to polyethylene in terms of its properties, but is a little harder and more resistant to heat.

Polyurethane

A high-performance plastic that can be used as a versatile rigid, flexible or spray-on coating.

Pourable asphalt

Asphalt that can be poured and spread while hot.

Pouring compounds

Compounds that are processed while hot and used to seal joints in concrete and asphalt surfaces.

Pot life

The processing time available for reactive materials, e.g. two-component polyurethane. The time span for the achievement of an optimum application result for the application in question, between mixing and the end of the processing time.

Prime coat

An adhesion-optimising layer applied between the surface and the corrosion prevention tape. See also primer.

Primer

An adhesion-optimising layer applied between the surface and the corrosion prevention tape. See also Prime coat.

Processing temperature

Range of material temperature specified by manufacturer for successful processing.

Recovery

The ability of a sealant to return to its original state after short-term stretching of medium to high intensity.

Rehabilitation

Based on the Latin meaning: Restoration of the previous state. Specialist term for the repair of entire pipelines and pipeline sections.

Resin

A basic ingredient in two-component substances for epoxy resins and FRP.

Rocket method

A soil displacement method for trenchless installation of pipelines. A pneumatic (rocket-shaped) displacement hammer is used to open up a hollow space underground. The pipelines are installed in this space immediately or at a later stage.

Rolled asphalt

Rolled asphalt is a collective term for all asphalt layers that are sealed using a roller during construction. Rolled asphalt layers include the asphalt carrier layer, binding layer, asphalt concrete and stone mastic asphalt.

Rubber

A collective term for elastic polymers used in the production of rubber. Rubber can be synthetic or natural (e.g. latex, which can be extracted from rubber trees in the form of a milky fluid).

Salt spray test

The standard salt spray test can be used to test the corrosion prevention effect of organic coatings, metallic layers or physical/chemical surface treatments.

(Sand)blasting

Surface pre-treatment for steel surfaces using compressor technology and blasting abrasives.

Saponification number

The saponification number is a rating that indicates the purity and quality of petrolatum. The lower the saponification number, the purer the petrolatum.

Seam        

A seam is a joint created during production between two components or materials with the same properties.

Self-amalgamating

One of the properties of plastic tapes that are coated with butyl rubber tape on the outer and inner surfaces (i.e. both sides). Self-amalgamation takes place when two tapes overlap, creating a hose-like encasement.

Setting

The process of a substance reaching its permanently hardened state. (Also referred to as hardening, drying, curing or vulcanising)

Shear strength

The maximum force (based on the surface) required to break the connection between the encasement and the surface. The tensile force must be applied parallel to the connection surface.

Shrink sleeve/hose

Basic material in sleeve or hose form used during the heat shrinking process.

Shrinking process

See heat shrinking process.

Shore hardness

A parameter usually used for elastomers and rubber-elastic polymers. Directly related to the penetration depth and therefore a measure of material hardness.

Single-tape system

A corrosion prevention system that uses just one tape. The tape prevents corrosion and provides mechanical protection.

Sleeve

A construction element used to create a continuous connection between two pipes.

Soil/air area

The transitional area from the soil to the surface (also referred to as the soil to air interface area).

Soil to air Interface Area

In pipeline construction, the area of a pipe where it transitions from underground to above-ground use.

Softening point

The temperature level up to which a thermoplastic retains its shape. If heated above this temperature, the plastic changes in form.

Solids

Solids are the part of a substance that is left over after all volatile components have been removed (e.g. following the atomisation of a solvent) under defined conditions.

Solvent

A fluid used in coatings to thin the coating material; evaporates during hardening.

Spiral corrosion

Damage pattern, e.g. on steel pipelines, when a two-ply tape is used for corrosion prevention instead of a three-ply tape. The microchannels in the transitional area between the PE carrier film and the butyl adhesive layer of the two-ply tape create diffusion paths for water and oxygen.

Stone mastic asphalt

A large-grained asphalt used in road construction to repair highly abrasion-resistant covering layers. Contains increased concentrations of bitumen and stone compared to conventional asphalt. Fibres are also added to the ground mass.

Stress class

The classification of an encasement in accordance with a standard (e.g. DIN EN 12068, relating to resistance to mechanical loads [A-low, B-medium, C-high] and temperature resistance [in degrees Celsius]).

Subsurface corrosion

Subsurface corrosion is the spreading of rust (on steel) below a coating. See also spiral corrosion.

Tear

A narrow, uneven patch of damage to a surface.

Tear resistance

Indicates the maximum force for the material width that a material can withstand without failing.

Thermoplastic

A plastic that is formable within a specific temperature range (thermoplastic) and that retains this form once cooled. This process can be repeated any number of times by reheating and recooling the material.

THR class

A classification system by GRTgaz (France) designed to rate corrosion prevention systems based on the loads that occur.

Three-edge (side) adhesion

If a material adheres to three edges (e.g. 2xjoint edges, 1xjoint base), the ability of the material to move is severely restricted. Materials such as sealants must therefore be able to change shape like a rubber band, i.e. only adhere to the two joint edges (three-edge adhesion must be avoided).

Three-layers

Spiral wrapping a tape with an overlap of 66.67% results in three tape layers.

Three-ply tape

A symmetrically or asymmetrically structured (plastic) tape with, for example, a stabilising polyethylene carrier film and butyl rubber coating on both sides. Used as corrosion prevention tape.

TL Fug-StB

Technical terms and conditions of delivery for joint fillers in road surfaces.

TP Fug-StB

Technical testing conditions for joint fillers in road surfaces.

Trenchless installation

An installation method for pipelines that does not require digging and then filling pipe channels. See also piling, horizontal directional drilling.

Two-component

Materials that are made up of two components, e.g. basic material and hardener, mixed shortly before application in a precisely defined ratio.

Two-layers

Spiral wrapping a tape with an overlap of 50% results in two tape layers.

Two-ply tape

Comprised of, for example, a stabilising polyethylene carrier film with a butyl rubber coating on one side. Used only as a mechanical protection tape (an 'outer tape').

Two-tape system

A corrosion prevention system that uses two tapes. The inner tape prevents corrosion and the outer tape provides mechanical protection. The inner tape is always a 3-ply tape.

Two-tape system

A corrosion prevention system that uses two tapes. The inner tape prevents corrosion and the outer tape provides mechanical protection.

UV resistance

Indicates the stability of a material against the effects of ultraviolet (UV) rays. 

Viscosity

A way to describe the thickness of a liquid. The higher the viscosity rating, the more viscous the product.

Volume resistivity (electrical)

The resistance inside insulating materials, which severely inhibits the flow of electrical current through the insulating material.

Welding

The connection of two components using heat, with or without additional welding materials.

Welded seam

A joint created using welding. The application of a corrosion prevention solution is also required.

Winding

Looping tape around the substrate surface.

Winding process

See cold winding process

ZTV Asphalt-StB

Additional technical contractual conditions and guidelines for the construction of traffic road surfaces in asphalt.

ZTV Fug-StB

Additional technical contractual conditions and guidelines for joints in traffic surfaces.